Cities have long been on the frontlines of migration. When immigrants settle in cities, a broad range of urban institutions play a role in their integration. Migrants rent or buy homes, join the labour force or open new businesses, enrol in schools and visit cultural sites, engage with places of worship, pay taxes and use services, and take part in other aspects of daily urban life. Cities have often been the gateways of diversity, opportunity and tolerance. In fact, a wave of policies and programmes have been developed in recent years in cities across the United States to further facilitate and promote migrant integration.