Appendix 1: Historical Overview About Catalanism and Modern Self-Government

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Catalan nationalism or catalanism31 started off as a political movement in an attempt to build a federal state in Spain in the context of Spain's First Republic which took place during the short and highly convulsive period of 1873-74. Valentí Almirall and other Catalan intellectuals participated in this process to establish a new political ideology in the mid-19th century to modernise and regenerate Spain32 as a country and also to restore self-government, as the most effective tool to obtain recognition for the Catalan language, culture and identity and also to promote economic interests.