Integration policies: Who benefits? The development and use of indicators in integration debates

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Currently, it is difficult to say whether specific integration policies have generally succeeded or failed to meet their objectives. The reasons for this uncertainty are many. Most integration policies are relatively new, frequently changing, politically contested, small in scale, and not directly aimed at integration. Another structural reason for this uncertainty is that most evaluations of integration policies are often not reliable enough to measure the impact of the policy. This is perhaps unsurprising given that econometric studies are relatively new in the area of social policy. Studies where migrants‟ integration related outcomes are systematically compared to their ex ante outcomes, or to those of similar groups of non-participants are still rare. Moreover, considerable difference exists with regards quality of studies.