MIPEX Policy Brief
Within the EU, nearly 20 million residents (or 4% of total population) are non-EU citizens. The number of non-EU newcomers was relatively stable from 2008-2013, due to fewer labour migrants and more recognised beneficiaries of international protection. However, since the economic crisis and the implementation of austerity policies, immigrants’ situation has become precarious. Non-EU citizens' employment rates (aged 20-64) dropped 6 points on average in the EU to 56.5% in 20141, while their risk of poverty or social exclusion increased 4 points to 49%, twice the level for EU citizens2. Yet integration policies have not improved significantly in the last years. On the one hand, EU has well-established 1st generation legislation and growing jurisprudence on anti-discrimination, labour market rights, family reunion and long-term residence. 2nd generation legislation may be passed on anti-discrimination (under negotiation since 2008) and introduced on labour migration in 2015/6.