This monograph is part of the Atlantic Future project, financed by the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme. It is an important part of Atlantic Future, as the monograph provides a synthesis of the project, along with its main results and an update on the research work carried out over the past three years. The monograph, which forms part of the project’s outreach goal, is intended to reach an interested public, academics and political and economic decision-makers, who will be able to see the Atlantic Space as a laboratory for globalisation and for the multilateral solutions with which to face the world’s new challenges. The Atlantic Future project has made an analysis of the state of affairs in the Atlantic Space in relation to the global space, presenting its evolution and trends in four main areas: the economy and trade flows, energy and natural resources, institutions and citizens, and security. Beginning with this analysis, possible future scenarios have been envisaged with the aim of using this information as the basis for greater knowledge of the Atlantic Space. The objective of Atlantic Future, as set out from the start, has been to study patterns of cooperation in the Atlantic Space and present strategies on how the EU can involve itself in transatlantic relations in the context of the new redistribution of power that is unfolding and the rebalancing of relations around and within the Atlantic Space. An answer was to be provided to the question of what the Atlantic is, through understanding the space itself and its conceptualisation as a space of international relations, comparing it with other oceans and setting it in the context of its own history.