Water is the most widespread substance on earth. It is vital for drinking, sanitation, food production, commodity production, and many other things that facilitate human life. It can be said that water is the source of life. Irrespective of this fact, man is continuously threatening water availability mainly due to ignorance. For instance, rapid industrialization and urbanization in many countries have led to severe water pollution. Most efforts spent in the past to manage urban and industrial pollution have concentrated on what is commonly referred to as “end-of-pipe” treatment which focusses on “what to do with the waste once it has been generated”. While improvements in treatment and disposal technology have led to significant reductions in the quantity and types of pollutants discharged into the environment, these “end-of-pipe” methods have proven to be costly and ultimately unsustainable.